Reuben and Judah (Conversations Through the Pages Volume Three)
Like Hayek, Mises moved beyond economics in his later years to address questions regarding the foundation of all social science. But unlike Hayek's attempts, Mises's writings on these matters have received less attention than they deserve. Theory and History , writes Rothbard in his introduction, "remains by far the most neglected masterwork of Mises. Here Mises defends his all-important idea of methodological dualism: one approach to the hard sciences and another for the social sciences. He defends the epistemological status of economic proposition.
He has his most extended analysis of those who want to claim that there is more than one logical structure by which we think about reality. He grapples with the problem of determinism and free will. Joseph is easily the best known of the 12 sons and was the favorite of Jacob: Gen , being mentioned in 16 chapters in Genesis between Ch. Levi was important because it was from him that the priestly line of the Levites descended. Jesus was descended from the tribe of Judah Heb Rev There are several stories from these sons that read like a "soap opera.
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Because of this, he lost his birthright as the firstborn, with his father Israel giving it instead to the two sons of Joseph 1 Chr In Genesis, chapter 34, a man named "Shechem" raped Dinah, the brother's sister. Shechem then begged his father to get her for him as a wife. When the brothers heard the father begging Jacob to give her to Shechem for a wife, they were very angry, and came up with a plan. Shechem, as well as all of the men of their city could marry the daughters of the Israelites if they all underwent circumcision.
They agreed, and on the third day after undergoing the ritual, while they were in pain and incapacitated, Simeon and Levi went to the city and killed every single male, and brought Dinah back home. Then, all of the brothers returned and plundered the city, taking everything of value with them.
Few divorces occur among them, and as I believe little adultery. If the wife should so far forget herself, I do not believe that it  would be less than a matter of life and death to the two adulterers. The immorality of the girls is not considered so important, nor do they fail for this reason to find husbands; yet it is always a disgrace. As to their dress, demeanor, and manners, the women and girls are very modest and bashful; the men also are not immodest, and are very much insulted, when some foolish Frenchman dares to meddle with their women.
Once when a certain [page ] madcap took some liberties, they came and told our Captain that he should look out for his men, informing him that any one who attempted to do that again would not stand much of a chance, that they would kill him on the spot.
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They always put up a separate cabin for the women when they have their menses, for then they believe them to be infectious. They are astonished and often complain  that, since the French mingle with and carry on trade with them, they are dying fast, and the population is thinning out. For they assert that, before this association and intercourse, all their countries were very populous, and they tell how one by one the different coasts, according as they have begun to traffic with us, have been more reduced by disease; adding, that the reason why the Armouchiquois do not diminish in population is because they are not at all careless.
Thereupon they often puzzle their brains, and sometimes think that the French poison them, which is not true; at other times that they give poison to the wicked and vicious of their nation to help them vent their spite upon some one. This last supposition is not without  foundation; for we have seen them have some arsenic and sublimate which they said they bought from certain French Surgeons, in order to kill whomsoever they wished, and boasted that they had already experimented upon a captive, who they said died the day after taking it.
Others complain that the merchandise is often counterfeited and adulterated, and that peas, beans, prunes, bread, and other things that are spoiled are sold to them; and that it is that which corrupts the body and gives rise to the dysentery and other diseases which always attack them in Autumn. This theory likewise is not offered [page ] without citing instances, for which they have often been upon the point of breaking with us, and making war upon us.
Indeed there would be great need ,of  providing against these detestable murders by some suitable remedy if one could be found. Nevertheless the principal cause of all these deaths and diseases is not what they say it is, but it is something to their shame; in the Summer time, when our ships come, they never stop gorging themselves excessively during several weeks with various kinds of food not suitable to the inactivity of their lives; they get drunk, not only on wine but on brandy; so it is no wonder that they are obliged to endure some gripes of the stomach in the following Autumn.
This nation takes little care for the future, but, like all the other Americans, enjoys the present; they are not urged on to work except by present necessity.
As long as they have anything, they are always celebrating feasts and having songs, dances and speeches; if there is  a crowd of them you need not expect anything else; there are then some fine truces in the woods. To speak of restraint, when they are not at war, is equal to proposing a riot. If you tell them that they will be hungry in the Winter: Endriex, they will answer you, "It is all the same to us, we shall stand it well enough: we spend seven and eight days, even ten sometimes, without eating anything, yet we do not die.
The storehouses are like this;—They put these [page ] provisions in sacks, which they tie up in  big pieces of bark; these they suspend from the interlacing branches of two or three trees so that neither rats nor other animals, nor the dampness of the ground, can injure them. These are their storehouses. Who is to take care of them when they go away? Such are the only guards they leave.
For in truth this is not a nation of thieves. Would to God that the Christians who go among them would not set them a bad example in this respect. But as it is now, if a certain Savage is suspected of having stolen anything he will immediately throw this fine defense in your teeth, We are not thieves, like you, Ilinen auio aciquoan guiro derquir. Returning to the sparseness of the  population, there are still some other reasons for it; this being the principal one, that in a life so irregular, so necessitous and so painful, a man's constitution cannot hold out unless it be very strong, and even then he is liable to accidents and irremediable injuries.
Their wives, on account of their heavy work, are not very prolific, for at most they do not have children oftener than every two years, and they are not able to nourish their offspring if they have them oftener, as they nurse them for three years if they can.
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Their confinement lasts hardly two hours ; often the children are born on the march, and a little while afterward the mothers will go on with their work as before. I have often wondered how many of these people there are. Look at the chart and I will give you the enumeration of them. The Souriquoys, in all, , or The Montaguets, This is about ten thousand souls, and I believe it is the highest number.
The other tribes are not known to us. Consider how truly and emphatically the Holy Spirit has spoken through the mouth of Isaiah about these poor scattered Savages, under the fitting and appropriate comparison of a great orchard or garden, wild and uncultivated. He says: At the time of the harvest there are still nothing but buds ,  At the time of the ripening, they are springing up: Then must he cut off the sprigs with pruning hooks: Therefore the fruits are left to the fowls of the mountain, and to the beasts of the earth; the fowls shall Summer upon them, and all the beasts of the earth shall winter upon them.
For in truth this people, who, through the progress and experience of centuries, ought to have come to some perfection in the arts, sciences and philosophy, is like a great field of stunted and ill-begotten wild plants, a people which ought to have produced abundant fruits in philosophy, government, customs, and conveniences of life; which ought to be already prepared for the completeness of the Holy Gospel, to be received in the house of God. Yet behold it wretched and dispersed, given up to ravens, owls, and infernal cuckoos, and to be the cursed prey of spiritual foxes,  bears, boars, and dragons.
O, God of mercy! Wilt thou not look upon this poor wilderness with a favoring eye? Kind [page ] and pious husbandman, so act that the prophecy which follows may be fulfilled upon us and in our time. In that time shall a present be brought unto the Lord of Hosts front a people rent, and torn in pieces, a terrible People, after which there hath been no other; A nation expecting, expecting, and trodden under foot, whose land the rivers have spoiled, to the place of the name of the Lord of Hosts, the mount Soin. T is true that great poverty stifles the spirit, and overwhelms it with its importunate and despotic sway, so that it can seldom turn to itself, or revel in agreeable meditations, nor even dream of something better to prevent or lighten it, being always absorbed in and possessed by the greatest needs.
We see this in our poor Savages, who live only from hand to mouth, and hence are always subject to the fear of hunger, first and strongest of all wants; they have no opportunity of developing their minds in the pursuit of  knowledge; not even of providing arts and trades for the relief and amelioration of life, nor to satisfy other wants however pressing. Now for this reason they not only lack all literature and fine arts, but also unfortunately medicine, whether for the preservation of their health, or for the cure of their diseases, except the little that I shall describe. They keep themselves well principally in Summer by the use of hot rooms and sweat boxes, and by the bath.
They also use massage, afterwards rubbing the whole body with seal oil, causing them to emit an odor which is very disagreeable to those not accustomed to it. Nevertheless, when this oiling process is over, they can stand heat and cold better, and their  hair is not caught in the branches, but is slippery, so that rain and tempest do not injure the head, but glide over it to the feet; also that the mosquitoes [page ] which are very vicious there in Summer, and more annoying than one would believe do not sting so much in the bare parts, etc. They also use tobacco, and inhale the smoke as is done in France.
This is without doubt a help to them, and upon the whole rather necessary, considering the great extremes of cold and bad weather and of hunger and overeating or satiety which they endure; but also many ills arise from it, on account of its excessive use. It is the sole delight of these people when they have some of it, and also certain Frenchmen are so bewitched with it that, to inhale its fumes, they would sell their shirts.
All their talks,  treaties, welcomes, and endearments are made under the fumes of this tobacco. They gather around the fire, chatting and passing the pipe from hand to hand, enjoying themselves in this way for several hours. Such is their inclination and custom. Now those among them who practice medicine, are identical with those who are at the head of their Religion, i. Autmoins, whose office is the same as that of our Priests and our Physicians. But in truth they are not Priests, but genuine sorcerers; not Physicians, but jugglers, liars, and cheats. All their science consists in a knowledge of a few simple laxatives, or astringents, hot or cold applications, lenitives or irritants for the liver or kidneys, leaving the rest to luck; nothing more.
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Now if the sick man eats what is given him, it is a good sign; otherwise, they say that he is very sick, and after some days if they can they will send for the Autmoin, whom the Basques call Pilotoys; i. If he sees after some days, that notwithstanding all his blowing the evil does not disappear, he finds the reason for it according to his own ideas, and says it is because the Devil is there inside of the sick man, tormenting and preventing him from getting well; but that he must have the evil thing, get it out by force and kill it.
Then all prepare for that heroic action, the killing of Beelzebub. And the Autmoin advises them to be upon their guard, for it can easily happen that this insolent fellow, seeing himself badly treated by him, may hurl himself upon some one of the crowd, and strangle him upon the spot. For this reason he allots to each one his part of the  farce; but it would be tedious to describe, for it lasts fully three hours.
The sum and substance of it is that the juggler hides a stick in a deep hole in the ground, to which is attached a cord. Then, after various chants, dances, and howls over the hole, and over the sick man, who is not far away, of such kind that a well man would have enough of it to deafen him, he takes a naked sword and slashes it about so furiously that the sweat [page ] comes out in great drops all over his body and he froths like a horse. Thereupon the spectators, being already intimidated, he, with a frightful and truly demoniac voice, redoubles his roars and threats that they must take care, that Satan is furious and that there is great peril.
At this cry the poor dupes turn pale  as death, and tremble like the leaf upon the tree. At last this impostor cries out in another and more joyous tone: " There is the accursed one with the horn: I see him extended there at bay and panting within the ditch. But courage, we must have him all and exterminate him entirely.
But they are far from getting him, as the Autmoin has fastened the stick too well.
They pull again as hard as they can, but without success, while the Pilotoys goes, from time to time, to utter his blasphemies over the hole; and, making as if to give great thrusts to the diabolical enemy, little by little uncovers the stick which, at last, by hard pulling, is torn out, bringing  with it some rubbish, which the charlatan had fastened to the end, such as decayed and mouldy bones, pieces of skin covered with dung, etc.
Then they are all overjoyed ; wicked Lucifer has been killed.